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United States Senator 






Cornell University Library 
DS 119.V22 1916 

Scattered naton, 

3 1924 028 61 




Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

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the United States on the use of the text. 

To the Memory 



Representative in Congress 
Mayor of New York City 

Patriotic, Aggressive, Fearless 
Seeking Fulfillment of the Right 

in the 
Expression of True Philanthropy 
Who Bequeathed to the World 
A Son of Scientific Achievements 

The Pu.blisher, who bears him 
In Appreciative Remembrance 


• /^. ^^ 





Late United States Senator from North Carolina 


publisher .- \ 
i 280 BfoadT^^ay New York 

\^' ' 1916 

\ ( 

CopyrlBht, 1904, by Willis Bruce Dowd 
Copyright, 1916, by Mircua Schnltzer 

The Wolfer Press 
New York 


Introduction to the Edition 

of 1916 

At no time, perhaps, since the beginning of 
the modern era of civilization has the attention 
of the United States been centered so largely 
upon the sufferings of the Jewish people as in 
these days of the Great War. 

Compared with their condition today in war- 
devastated Poland, Galieia, Lithuania, and else- 
where in Europe where the destruction of battle 
is as a scourge, the lot of the Jews xmder the 
savage Russian regime, with its barbarous 
"pogroms", was one that approached a degree 
of toleration, if not of contentment, albeit under 
sporadic persecution. 

For Poland, Galieia and Lithuania, with their 
millions of Jews, are today the destined victims 
of starvation in a ^'war for civilization", unless, 
perchance, American means and American 
methods succeed in forcing a wedge into these 
lands of almost unprecedented misery, and in 
rendering prompt and efficacious relief. 

Now that humanitarians throughout the 
world, even in the belligerent countries, regard- 
less of creedal or religious differences, are 


stirred to helpful activity in works of ameliora- 
tion — ^works that are already expressed by 
Americans in figures of millions and in terms of 
world-reach — it is both just and important that 
adequate reference should be made to the debt 
which religion (so unhappily, so mercilessly, 
prostituted by the malign agents of Jewish per- 
secution), which fimdamental law and govern- 
ment, which statesmanship and science, com- 
merce and trade, even democracy itself, owes to 
the Jews. 

Eminent men of many lands, professing al- 
legiance to many ecclesiastical institutions, have 
paid tribute, in past years, to the essential worth 
of the Jewish people. Some such tributes have 
been evoked by the salient, and at times even the 
unique, service which has been rendered to the 
State, to science or literature, or to humanity, 
by the Jews. Many others have been brought 
forth because of the horrors of Jewish persecu- 
tions, with which the records of the Nineteenth 
and Twentieth centuries have been so often and 
so indelibly stained. 

None of these tributes, however, presents a 
finer sense of the worth of the Jew, or displays 
more valid or indubitable evidence of the wealth 
of his contributions to civilization; none evinces 
a more thorough appreciation of the Jewish peo- 


pie, historically considered; or manifests a more 
intelligent study of and research into the Jewish 
fundamentals — so many of which project them- 
selves forcefully into the civilization of today — 
than that of Zebulon Baird Vance, who sat for 
two decades in the legislative councils of the 
United States, as Representative and Senator, 
after having thrice served his own State as Gov- 

Just why it was that Senator Vance, this 
product of the North Carolina mountains, this 
offspring of rugged, rigidly righteous parents, 
whose family roots extend to Ireland and Nor- 
mandy, should have arisen, when at the very 
zenith of his power and in the fulness of his 
statesmanship, as the champion of the Jewish 
people, is explained only through a knowledge 
of his keen sense of justice, of his love for hu- 
manity, and perhaps by his own recollections of 
the days of his early struggles. 

Born near Asheville, Buncombe County, 
North Carolina, May 13th, 1830, the son of 
David Vance and Mira Margaret Baird, 
daughter of Zebulon Baird, once a State Sena- 
tor from Buncombe County, Zebulon Vance had 
few of the advantages which today are supposed 
to make for one's material progress through life. 
At the age of six, it is true, he attended a board- 


ing school; but it was a boarding school in the 
North Carolina mountains, with all that that 

At twelve years of age he was sent to Wash- 
ington College, in Tennessee, which establish- 
ment then, academically considered, would hard- 
ly compare favorably with the average second- 
ary school of today. Notwithstanding, fate 
willed that he should not be permitted to finish 
his course, even in that college, for he was called 
home upon the death of his father in January, 
1844, and did not return. 

Later, having borrowed three hundred dol- 
lars — a rather large amount for a youth in those 
days — from the president of the University of 
North Carolina, Vance invested the money in 
that institution, where he matriculated, not for 
the full academic course, but as a special stud- 
ent in the Law School. There he met Clement 
Dowd, "a farmer's boy from the sand ridges and 
pines of Moore County, who, like himself, aspir- 
ing to a larger life, had borrowed money on 
which to begin an education", but who, mote for- 
tunate than Vance, was able to secure a full 
diploma in the academic course of the university. 
This meeting yielded a life-long friendship, 
which grew into intimacy. Dowd became 
Vance's law partner, and also a member of the 


House of Representatives. This friendship end- 
ed only with the death of Vance, who had been 
the great War Governor of his State, at Wash- 
ington in April of 1894. Dowd became his biog- 
rapher, and prepared the record which so fitly 
commemorates the distinguished life and achieve- 
ments of Vance. 

Dr. Kemp P. Battle, for many years the head 
of the University of North Carolina, tells of his 
impressions of Vance, when he first met him, as 
follows : 

"In the Simimer of 1848, I visited Asheville 
in company with my father, who, as Superior 
Court Judge, was holding a special term for the 
county of Buncombe, The old court house had 
been burned. Timbers had been hauled for the 
erection of a more handsome structure. I was 
sitting on these timbers • . . talking to a young 
lawyer. . . He called to a young man passing 
by and introduced him to me as *Zeb* Vance. 
My new acquaintance impressed me at once as 
a youth of peculiar attractiveness of manner and 
gifts of mind. I thought I knew something of 
Shakespeare, but his familiarity with the char- 
acters and words of the Titan poet put me to 
shame. I claimed to be in a measure intimate 
with the personages of the romances of my fav- 
orite, Scott, but he had evidently lived with them 


as with home folks. I had been from childhood 
not always a willing, but certainly a regular at- 
tendant on Sunday-school and church services, 
and I thought I had at least amateur familiarity 
with the Bible, but his mind seemed to be stored 
with Scriptural texts as fully as a theological 
student preparing for his examination. Candor 
compels me to admit, however, that his applica- 
tion of these texts conduced of tener to risibility 
than to the conversion of souls. His wit spark- 
led like the wavelets of the 'ever laughing ocean'. 
His humor had no acridity, and was distin- 
guished by the extraordinary power not only of 
perennial pleasantness, but of gently forcing his 
companions to feel that they had known and 
loved him from boyhood." 

"Here, then," says Willis Bruce Dowd, "we 
have a complete revelation of the influences of 
heredity and environment which produced a 
mind capable of understanding the history and 
portent of the Jewish race. Here we see a scion 
of oppressed French and Irish people, whose 
blood was warm with resentment of wrong, in 
advocacy of justice; whose mind was stored with 
knowledge of Biblical and profane literature; 
whose fancy was lively, and whose career was to 
be made by the use of his tongue and pen — and 
thus it was but the fruit of a process of evolution 


that our author gave us *The Scattered Nation,' 
. . . . which, under the spell of his person- 
ality, captivated and delighted hosts of hearers." 
Senator Vance was a man of massive build, 
having a leonine head, crowned with abundant 
hair. His blue eyes were ever sparkling as his 
clarion voice gave forth in pleasing succession 
the thoughts, the conceits of wisdom, humor and 
wit, that animated him. 

His political career was phenomenal. He was 
elected State Senator, then Congressman, before 
he was thirty years of age. He was Governor 
of North Carolina at the age of thirty-two, and 
was twice re-elected — in 1864 and 1876. He 
served his State as United States Senator for 
two full terms, and was serving a third term 
when death removed him from the field of his 
fruitful labors while he was in the full maturity 
of his powers. 

His fimeral was held in the Capitol at Wash- 
ington. It was attended by the President, mem- 
bers of the Cabinet, diplomats, members of Con- 
gress, and officers of the Army and Navy. His 
body was borne by a special escort of distin- 
guished men to his native State, and there 
interred in that highland county which gave him 
birth. ■'■'■ 

In Capitol Square, at Raleigh, is a bronze 



statue of the Governor and Senator. It is a noble 
reminder of the labors and accomplishments of 
a great son of North Carolina. But bronze is 
perishable. The greatest memorial to Senator 
Vance is fovmd in his contributions to the legis- 
lation and the literature that make for the prog- 
ress of the humanities. Such is his lecture on 
the Jewish people. It abides, continuing "as a 
stream of pleasant water, running through the 
earth, making glad the hearts of men, and help- 
ing to bring in that real brotherhood of which he 
spoke and for which he so ardently longed." 

"The Scattered Nation," like Lincoln's ad- 
dress at Gettysburg, is a living document. That 
is because it deals with what has been so aptly 
termed the vrcdes Veritas — the true truth. It is, 
therefore, imperishable. 

And the soul of the man lives in the lecture. 


New York City, August, 1916. 


The Scattered Nation 

Says Prof. Maury: "There is a river in the 
ocean. In the severest droughts it never fails, 
and in the mightiest floods it never overflows. 
The Gulf of Mexico is its fountain, and its 
mouth is in the Arctic seas* It is the Gulf Stream. 
There is in the world no other such majestic flow 
of waters. Its current is more rapid than the 
Mississippi or the Amazon, and its volume more 
than a thousand times greater. Its waters, as 
far out from the Gulf as the Carolina coasts, are 
of indigo blue; they are so distinctly marked that 
their line of junction with the common sea- water 
may be traced by the eye. Often one-half of a 
vessel may be perceived floating in Gulf Stream 
water, while the other half is in common water 
of the sea, so sharp is the line and such the want 
of g^ffinity between those waters, and such too the 
reluctance, so to speak, on the part of those of 
the Gulf Stream to mingle with the common 
water of the sea." 

This curious phenomenon in the physical 
world has its counterpart in the moral. There is 
a lonely river in the midst of the ocean of man- 
kind. The mightiest floods of human tempta- 
tion have never caused it to overflpw and the 


fiercest fires of human cruelty, though seven 
times heated in the furnace of religious bigotry, 
have never caused it to dry up, although its waves 
for two thousand years have rolled crimson with 
the blood of its martyrs. Its fountain is in the 
gray dawn of the world's history, and its mouth 
is somewhere in the shadows of eternity. It, 
too„ refuses to mingle with the surrounding 
waves, and the line which divides its restless 
billows from the common waters of humanity is 
also plainly visible to the eye. It is the Jewish 

The Jew is beyond doubt the most remarkable 
man of this world — past or present. Of all the 
stories of the son of men there is none so wild, so 
wonderful, so full of extreme mutation, so re- 
plete with suffering and horror, so abounding in 
extraordinary providences, so overflowing with 
scenic romance. There is no man who ap- 
proaches him in the extent and character of the 
influence which he has exercised oyer the human 
family. His history is the history of our civil- 
ization and progress in this world, and our faith 
and hope in that which is to come. From him 
have we derived the form and pattern of all that 
is excellent on earth or in heaven. If, as De 
Quincey says, the Roman emperors, as the great 
accountants for the happiness of more men and 


men more cultivated than ever before, were en- 
trusted to the motions of a single will and had a 
special, singular and mysterious relation to the 
secret councils of heaven — thrice truly may it be 
said of the Jew. Palestine, his home, was the 
central chamber of God's administration. He 
was at once the grand usher to these glorious 
courts, the repository of the councils of the Al- 
mighty and the envoy of the divine mandates to 
the consciences of men. He was the priest and 
faith-giver to mankind, and as such, in spite of 
the gibe and jeer, he must ever be considered as 
occupying a peculiar and sacred relation to all 
other peoples of this world. Even now, though 
the Jews have long since ceased to exist as a 
consolidated nation, inhabiting a common coun- 
try, and for eighteen hundred years have been 
scattered far and near over the wide earth, their 
strange customs, their distinct features, per- 
sonal peculiarities and their scattered unity, 
make them still a wonder and an astonishment. 
Though dead as a nation — as we speak of na- 
tions — they yet live. Their ideas fill the world 
and move the wheels of its progress, even as the 
sun, when he sinks behind the western hills, yet 
fills the heavens with the remnants of his glory. 
As the destruction of matter in one form is made 
necessary to its resurrection in another, so it 


WQidd seem that the perishing of the Jewish 
nationality was in order to the universal accept- 
ance and the everlasting establishment of Jew- 
ish ideas. Never before was there an instance 
of such a general rejection of the person and 
character, and acceptance of the doctrines and 
dogmas of a people. 

We regard with imlimited admiration the 
Greek and Roman, but reject with contempt his 
crude and beastly divinities. We affect to de- 
spise the Jew, but accept and adore the pure con- 
ception of a God which he taught us, and whose 
real existence the history of the Jew more than 
all else establishes. When the court chaplain of 
Frederick the Great was asked by that bluff 
monarch for a brief and concise smnmary of the 
argument in support of the truth of Scripture, 
he instantly replied, with force to which nothing 
could be added, "The Jews, Your Majesty, the 

I propose briefly to glance at their history, 
origin and civilization, peculiarities, present con- 
dition and probable destiny. 

"A people of Semitic race," says the encyclo- 
paedia, "whose ancestors appear at the very dawn 
of the history of mankind, on the banks of the 
Euphrates, the Jordan and the Nile, their frag- 
ments are now to be seen in larger or smaller 


numbers, in almost all of the cities of the globe, 
from Batavia to New Orleans, from Stockholm 
to Cape Town. When little more numerous 
than a family, they had their language, customs 
and peculiar observances, treated with princes 
and in every respect acted as a nation. Though 
broken, as if into atoms, and scattered through 
all climes, among the rudest and the most civil- 
ized nations, they have preserved, through thou- 
sands of years, common features and observ- 
ances, a common religion, literature and sacred 
language. ^ Without any political union, with- 
out any common head or centre, they are gen- 
erally regarded and regard themselves as a na- 
tion. They began as nomads, emigrating from 
country to country; their law made them agri- 
culturists for fifteen centuries; their exile trans- 
formed them into a mercantile people. They 
have struggled for their national existence 
against the Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, 
Syrians and Romans ; have been conquered and 
nearly exterminated by each of these powers and 
have survived them all. They have been op- 
pressed and persecuted by emperors and repub- 
lics, by sultans and by popes. Moors and inquisi- 
tors; they were proscribed in Catholic Spain, 
Protestant Norway and Greek Muscovy, while 
their persecutors sang the hymns of their psal- 


mody, revered their books, believed in their 
prophets and even persecuted them in the name 
of their God. They have numbered philosophers 
among the Greeks of Alexandria, and the Sara- 
cens of Cordova; have transplanted the wisdom 
of the East beyond the Pyrenees and the Rhine, 
and have been treated as pariahs among Pagans, 
Mahommedans and Christians. They have 
fought for liberty under Kosciusko and Blucher, 
and popular assemblies among the Sclavi and 
Germans still withheld from them the right of 
living in certain towns, villages and streets/' 

Whilst no people can claim such an unmixed 
purity of blood, certainly none can establish 
such antiquity of origin, such unbroken genera- 
tions of descent. That splendid passage of 
Macaulay so often quoted, in reference to the 
Roman Pontiffs, loses its force in sight of He- 
brew history. "No other institution," says he, 
"is left standing which carries the mind back to 
the times when the smoke of sacrifice rose from 
the Pantheon, and when camels, leopards and 
tigers bounded in the Iberian amphitheatre. The 
proudest royal houses are but of yesterday as 
compared with the line of the Supreme Pontiffs ; 
that line we trace back in unbroken links, from 
the Pope who crowned Napoleon in the nine- 
teenth century, to the Pope who crowned Pepin 


in the eighth, and far beyond Pepin, the august 
dynasty extends until it is lost in the twilight of 
fable. The Republic of Venice came next in 
antiquity, but the Republic of Venice is modern 
compared with the Papacy, and the Republic of 
Venice is gone and the Papacy remains. The 
Catholic Church was great and respected before 
the Saxon had set foot on Britain, before the 
Frank had passed the Rhine, when Grecian elo- 
quence still flourished at Antioch, when idols 
were still worshipped in the Temple at Mecca; 
and she may still exist, in undiminished vigor, 
when some traveller from New Zealand in the 
midst of a vast solitude shall take his stand on 
a broken arch of London Bridge to sketch the 
ruins of St. Paul." This is justly esteemed one 
of the most eloquent passages in our literature, 
but I submit it is not history. 

The Jewish people's church and institutions 
are still left standing, though the stones of the 
temple remain no longer one upon the other, 
though its sacrificial fires are forever extin- 
guished, and though the tribes, whose glory it 
was, wander with weary feet throughout the 
earth. And what is the line of Roman Pontiffs 
compared to that splendid dynasty of the suc- 
cessors of Aaron and Levi? "The twilight of 
fable," in which the line of Pontiffs began, was 


but the noonday brightness of the Jewish priest- 
hood. Their institution carries the mind back 
to the age when the prophet, in rapt mood, stood 
over Babylon and uttered God's wrath against 
that grand and wondrous mistress of the Eu- 
phratean plains — when the Memphian chivalry 
still gave precedence to the chariots and horse- 
men who each morning poured forth from the 
brazen gates of the abode of Anmaon ; when Tyre 
and Sidon were yet building their palaces by the 
sea, and Carthage, their greatest daughter, was 
yet unborn. That dynasty of prophetic priests 
existed even before Clio's pen had learned to 
record the deeds of men ; and when that splendid, 
entombed civilization once lighted the shores of 
the Erythrean Sea, the banks of the Euphrates 
and the plains of Shinar, with a glory inconceiv- 
able, of which there is nought now to tell, except 
the dumb eloquence of ruined temples and bur- 
ied cities. 

Then, too, it must be remembered that these 
Pontiffs were but Gentiles in the garb of Jews, 
imitating their whole routine. All Christian 
churches are but off-shoots from or grafts upon 
the old Jewish stock. Strike out all of Judaism 
from the Christian church and there remains 
nothing but an immeaning superstition. 

The Christian is simply the successor of the 


Jew — the glory of the one is likewise the glory 
of the other. The Saviour of the world was, 
after the flesh, a Jew — ^born of a Jewish maiden ; 
so likewise were all of the apostles and the first 
propagators of Christianity. The Christian re- 
ligion is equally Jewish with that of Moses and 
the prophets. 

I am not unaware of the fact that other peo- 
ple besides the Semites had a conception of the 
true God long before He was revealed to Abra- 
ham. The Hebrew Scriptures themselves 
testify this, and so likewise do the books of the 
very oldest of written records. The fathers of 
the great Aryan race, the shepherds of Iran, had 
so vivid a conception of the unity of God as to 
give rise to the opinion that they too had once 
had a direct revelation. It is more likely, how- 
ever, that traditions of this God had descended 
among them from the Deluge, which ultimately 
became adulterated by polytheistic imaginings. 
It seems natural that these people of highly 
sensitive intellects, dwelling beneath the serene 
skies that impend over the plains and mountains 
of Southwestern Asia, thickly studded with the 
calm and glorious stars, should mistake these 
most majestic emblems of the Creator for the 
Creator himself. Hence, no doubt, arose the 
worship of light and fire by Iranians and Saboe- 


anism, or star worship, by the Chaldeans. But 
the better opinion of learned Orientalists is that 
while the outward or exoteric doctrine taught the 
worship of the symbols, the esoteric or secret 
doctrines of Zoroaster, his predecessors and dis- 
ciples, taught, in fact, the worship of the Prin- 
ciple, the First Cause, the Great Unknowrij the 
Universal Intelligence, Magdam, or God. There 
can be no doubt that Abraham brought this 
monotheistic conception with him from Chaldea ; 
but notwithstanding this dim traditional light, 
which was abroad outside of the race of Shem, 
perhaps over the entire breadth of that splendid 
prehistoric civilization of the Arabian Cushite, 
yet for the more perfect light, which revealed to 
us God and His attributes, we are unquestion- 
ably indebted to the Jew, 

We owe to him, if not the conception, at least 
the preservation of pure monotheism. For 
whether this knowledge was original with these 
eastern people or traditional merely, it was 
speedily lost by all of them except the Jews. 
Whilst an unintelligent use of symbolism en- 
veloped the central figure with a cloud of idola- 
try and led the Magi to the worship of light and 
fire, the Sabean to the adoration of the heavenly 
host, the Egyptian to bowing down before Isis 
and Osiris, the Carthagenian to the propitiation 


of Baal and Astarte by human sacrifice and the 
subtle Greek to the deification of the varied laws 
of nature; the bearded Prophets of Israel were 
ever thundering forth, "Know, O Israel, that 
the Lord thy God is one God, and Him only 
shalt thou serve." 

Even his half-brother Ishmael, after an idola- 
trous sleep of centuries, awoke with a sharp and 
bloody protest against polytheism, and estab- 
lished the unity of God as the cornerstone of his 
faith. In this respect the influence which the 
Jew has exercised over the destinies of mankind 
places him before all the men of this world. For 
in this idea of God, all of the faith and creeds of 
the dominant peoples of the earth centre. It di- 
vides like a great mountain range the civiliza- 
tions of the ancient and modern worlds. Many 
enlightened men of antiquity acknowledged the 
beauty of this conception, though they did not 
embrace it. Socrates did homage to it, and 
Josephus declares that he derived his sublime 
ideal from the Jewish Scriptures. The accom- 
plished Tacitus seemed to grasp it, as the fol- 
lowing passage will show. In speaking of the 
Jews and in contrasting them with the Egyp- 
tians, he says: "With regard to the Deity, their 
creed is different. The Egyptians worship vari- 
ous animals and also certain symbolical repre- 


sentatives which are the work of man. The Jews 
acknowledge one God only, and Him they see 
in the mind's eye, and Him they adore in con- 
templation, condemning as impious idolators all 
who with perishable materials wrought into the 
human form attempt to give a representation 
of the Deity. The God of the Jews is the great 
governing mind that directs and guides the 
whole frame of nature — eternal, infinite and 
neither capable of change nor subject to decay." 
This matchless and eloquent definition of the 
Deity has never been improved upon, but it 
seems that it made slight impression upon the 
philosophical historian's mind. And yet what a 
contrast it is with his own coarse, material gods 1 
Indeed the rejection or ignorance of this pure 
conception by the acute and refined intellects of 
the mediseval ancients strikes us with wonder, 
and illustrates the truth that no man by search- 
ing can find out God. I am not unaware that 
the Arabian idea of Deity received many modi- 
fications from the conceptions of adjoining and 
contemporary nations — ^by cross-fertilization of 
ideas, as the process has been called. From the 
Egyptians and Assyrians were received many of 
these modifications, but the chief impression was 
from the Greeks. The general effect was to 
broaden and enlarge the original idea, whose 


tendency was to regard the Supreme Being as a 
tribal deity, into the grander, universal God, or 
Father of all. If time permitted it would be a 
most interesting study to trace the action and 
reaction of Semitic upon Hellenistic thought. 
How Hellenistic philosophy produced Pharisa- 
ism, or the progressive party of the Hebrew 
Theists ; how Pharisaism in turn produced Stoic- 
ism, which again prepared the way for Chris- 
tianity itself. 

The whole polity of the Jews was originally 
favorable to agriculture ; and though they ad- 
hered to it closely for many centuries, yet the 
peculiar facilities of their country ultimately 
forced them largely into commerce. The great 
caravan routes from the rich countries of the 
East, Mesopotamia, Shinar, Babylonia, Medea, 
Assyria and Persia, to the ports of the Mediter- 
ranean, lay through Palestine, whilst Spain, 
Italy, Gaul, Asia Minor, Northern Africa, 
Egypt, and all the riches that then clustered 
around the shores of the Great Sea and upon the 
islands in its bosom had easy access to its harbors. 
In fact, the wealth of the New World, its civiliza- 
tion, refinement and art lay in concentric circles 
around Jerusalem as a focal point. The Jewish 
people grew rich in spite of themselves and 
gradually forsook their agricultural simplicity. 


But more than all things else their institutions 
interest mankind. Their laws for the protection 
of property, the enforcement of industry and the 
upholding of the State were such as afforded the 
strongest impulse to personal freedom and na- 
tional vigor. The great principle of their real 
estate laws was the inalienability of the land. 
Houses, in walled towns might be sold in per- 
petuity, if unredeemed within the year ; land only 
for a limited period. At the year of Jubilee every 
estate reverted without repurchase to the original 
owners, and even during this period it might be 
redeemed by paying the value of the purchase 
of the years which intervened until the Jubilee. 
Little as we may now be disposed to value this 
remarkable Agrarian law, says Dean Milman, 
it secured the political equality of the people 
and anticipated all the mischiefs so fatal to the 
early Republics of Greece and Italy, the appro- 
priation of the whole territory of the State by a 
rich and powerful landed oligarchy, with the con- 
sequent convulsing of the community from the 
deadly struggles between the patrician and the 
plebeian orders. In the Hebrew state the im- 
provident man might indeed reduce himself and 
his family to penury or servitude, but he could 
not perpetuate a race of slaves or paupers. Every 
fifty years God, the king and lord of the soil, as 


it were, resumed the whole territory and granted 
it back in the same portions to the descendants 
of the original possessors. 

It is curious to observe, continues the same 
author, in this earliest practicable Utopia, the 
realization of Machiavelli's great maxim, the 
constant renovation of a state, according to the 
first principles of its constitution, a maxim recog- 
nized by our own statesmen, which they desig- 
nate as a "frequent recurrence to the first prin- 
ciples." How little we learn that is new. The 
civil polity of the Jews is so ultimately blended 
historically with the ecclesiastical that the former 
is not easily comprehended by the ordinary 
student. Their scriptures relate principally to 
the latter, and to obtain a knowledge of the other 
resort must be had to the Talmud and the Rab- 
binical expositions, a task that few men will lend 
themselves to, who hope to do anything else in 
this world. Yet a little study will repay richly 
the political student, by showing him the origin 
of many excellent seminal principles which we 
regard as modern. Their government was in 
form a theocratic democracy. God was not only 
their spiritual but their temporal sovereign also, 
who promulgated His laws by the mouths of His 
inspired prophets. Hence their terrible and un- 
flagging denunciations of all forms of idolatry 


— it was not only a sin against pure religion, but 
it was treason also. In most other particulars 
there was a democracy far purer than that of 
Athens. The very important principle of the 
separation of the functions of government was 
recognized. The civil and ecclesiastical depart- 
ments were kept apart. The civil ruler exercised 
no ecclesiastical functions and vice versa. When, 
as sometimes happened, the two functions rested 
in the same man, they were yet exercised differ- 
ently, as was not long since our custom in the 
administration of equity as contra-distinguished 
from law. 

Their organic law containing the elements of 
their polity, though given by God Himself, was 
yet required to be solemnly ratified by the whole 
people. This was done on Ebal and Gerizim, 
and was perhaps the first, as it was certainly the 
grandest, constitutional convention ever held 
among men. On these two lofty mountains, 
separated by a deep and narrow ravine, all Israel, 
comprising three millions of souls, were as- 
sembled; elders, prophets, priests, women and 
children, and 600,000 warriors, led by the spears 
of Judah and supported by the archers of Ben- 
jamin. In this mighty presence, surrounded by 
the sublime accessions to the grandeur of the 
scene, the law was read by the Levites, line by 


line, item by item, whilst the tribes on either 
height signified their acceptance thereof by re- 
sponsive amens, which pierced the heavens. Of 
all the great principles established for the happi- 
ness and good government of our race, though 
hallowed by the blood of the bravest and the best, 
and approved by centuries of trial, no one had a 
grander origin, or a more glorious exemplifica- 
tion than this one, that all governments derive 
their just powers from the consent of the 

So much for their organic law. Their legis- 
lation upon the daily exigencies and develop- 
ment of their society was also provided for on the 
most radically democratic basis, with the prac- 
tical element of representation. The Sanhedrim 
legislated , for all ecclesiastical affairs, and had 
also original judicial powers and jurisdiction over 
all offences against the religious law, and appel- 
late jurisdiction of many other offences. It was 
the principal body of their polity, as religion was 
the principal object of their constitution. It was 
thoroughly representative. Local and municipal 
government was fully recognized. The legis- 
lation for a city was done by the elders thereof, 
the prototypes in name and character of our 
eldermen or aldermen. 

They were the keystone of the whole social 


fabric,, and so directly represented the people that 
the terms "elders" and "people" are often used 
as synonymous. The legislation for a tribe was 
done by the princes of that tribe, and the heads 
of families thereof; whilst the elders of all the 
cities, heads of all the families and princes of all 
the tribes, when assembled, constituted the Na- 
tional Legislature, or congregation. The func- 
tions of this representative body, however, were 
gradually usurped and absorbed by the Sanhe- 

So thoroughly recognized was the principle of 
representation that no man exercised any politi- 
cal rights in his individual capacity, but only as 
a member of the house, which was the basis of the 
Hebrew polity. The ascending scale was the 
family or collection of houses, the tribe or collec- 
tion of families and the congregation or collec- 
tion of tribes. 

The kingdom thus composed was in fact a 
confederation, and exemplified both its strength 
and its weakness. The tribes were equal and 
sovereign within the sphere of their individual 
concerns. A tribe could convene its own legis- 
lative body at pleasure ; so could any number of 
tribes convene a joint body whose enactments 
were binding only upon the tribes represented 
therein. A single tribe or any number combined 


could make treaties, form alliances and wage 
war, whilst the others remained at peace with the 
enemy of their brethren. They were to all intents 
and purposes independent States, joined to- 
gether for common objects on the principle of 
federal republics, with a general government of 
delegated and limited powers. Within their 
tribal boundaries their sovereignty was absolute, 
minus only the powers granted to the central 
agent. They elected their chiefs, generals and 
kings. Next to the imperative necessity of com- 
mon defense their bond of union was their divine 
constitution, one religion and one blood. Jus- 
tice was made simple and was administered 
cheaply. Among no people in this world did the 
law so recognize the dignity and sacred nature 
of man made in the image of God and the crea- 
ture of his especial covenanting care. 

The constitution of their criminal courts and 
their code of criminal laws was most remarkable. 
The researches of the learned have failed to dis- 
cover in all antiquity anything so explicit, so hu- 
mane, and embracing so many of what are now 
considered the essential elements of enlightened 
jurisprudence. Only four offenses were pun-- 
ished by death. By English law, no longer ago 
than the reign of George I., more than one hun- 
dred and fifty offenses were so punishable ! The 


court for the trial of these capital offenders was 
the local Sanhedrim, composed of twenty-three 
members, who were both judges and jurors, 
prosecuting attorneys and counsel for the ac- 

The tests applied both to them and the ac- 
cusing witnesses, as to capacity and impartiality, 
were more rigid than those known to exist any- 
where else in the world. The whole procedure 
was so guarded as to convey the idea that the 
first object was to save the criminal. 

From the first step of the accusation to the 
last moment preceding final execution, no cau- 
tion was neglected, no solemnity was omitted, 
that might aid the prisoner's acquittal. No man 
in any way interested in the result, no gamester 
of any kind, no usurer, no store dealer, no rela- 
tive of accused or accuser, no seducer or adul- 
terer, no man without a fixed trade or business, 
could sit on that court. Nor could any aged 
man whose infirmities might make him harsh, 
nor any childless man or bastard, as being in- 
sensible to the relations of parent and child. 

Throughout the whole system of the Jewish 
government there ran a broad, genuine and re- 
freshing stream of democracy, such as the world 
then knew little of, and has since but little im- 
proved. For of course the political student will 


not be deceived by names. It matters not what 
their chief magistrates and legislators were 
called, if in fact and in substance their forms 
were eminently democratic. Masters of political 
philosophy tell us— and tell us with truth — that 
power in a State must and will reside with those 
who own the soil. If the land belongs to a king 
the government is a despotism, though every 
man in it vote ; if the land belongs to a select few, 
it is an aristocracy ; but if it belongs to the many, 
it is a democracy, for here is the division of 
power. Now, where, either in the ancient or 
modern world, will you find such a democracy as 
that of Israel? For where was there ever such 
a perfect and continuing division of the land 
among the people? It was impossible for this 
power ever to be concentrated in the hands of 
one or a select few. The lands belonged to God 
as the head of the Jewish nation — the right of 
eminent domain, so to speak, was in Him — and 
the people were His tenants. 

The year of Jubilee, as we have seen, came 
ever in time to blast the schemes of the ambitious 
and designing. 

Their law provided for no standing army, the 
common defense was intrusted to the patriotism 
of the people, who kept and bore arms at will, 
and believing that their hills and valleys would 


be best defended by footmen, the use of cavalry 
was forbidden, lest it should tend to feed the 
passion for foreign conquest. 

The ecclesiastical Sanhedrim, as before ob- 
served, was the principal body of their polity; 
its members were composed of the wisest and 
most learned of their people, who expounded and 
enforced the law and supervised all the inferior 
courts. This exposition upon actual cases aris- 
ing did not suflSice the learned doctors, who made 
the great mistake, which modern courts have 
learned to avoid, of uttering their dicta in antici- 
pated cases. These decisions and dicta consti- 
tute the groundwork of the Talmuds, of which 
there are two copies extant. They constitute 
the most remarkable collection of oriental wis- 
dom, abstruse learning, piety, blasphemy and 
obscenity ever got together in the world; and 
bear the same relation to the Jewish law which 
our judicial decisions do to our statute law. 
Could they be disentombed from the mass of 
rubbish by which they are covered — said to be 
so great as to deter all students who are not 
willing to devote a life-time to the task from 
entering upon their study — they would no doubt 
be of inestimable value to theologians, by fur- 
nishing all the aids which cotemporaneous con- 
struction must ever impart. 


Time would not permit me, if I had the power, 
to describe the chief city of the Jews, their relig- 
ious and political capital — "Jerusalem the Holy'* 
— "the dwelling of peace." In the days of Jew- 
ish prosperity it was in all things a fair type of 
tliis strange country and people. Enthroned 
upon the hills of Judah, overflowing with riches, 
the free-will offerings of a devoted people — 
decked with the barbaric splendor of Eastern 
taste, it was the rival in power and wondrous 
beauty of the most magnificent cities of antiquity. 
Nearly every one of her great competitors have 
mouldered into dust. The bat and the owl in- 
habit their towers, and the fox litters her young 
in the corridors of their palaces, but Jerusalem 
still sits in solitary grandeur upon the lonely 
hills, and though faded, feeble and ruinous still 
towers in moral splendor above all the spires and 
domes and pinnacles ever created by human 
hands. Nor can I dwell, tempting as is the 
theme, upon the scenery, the glowing landscapes, 
the cultivated fields, gardens and vineyards and 
gurgling fountains of that pleasant land. Many 
high summits and even one of the towers in the 
walls of the city of Jerusalem were said to have 
afforded a perfect view of the whole land from 
border to border. I must be content with asking 
you to imagine what a divine prospect would 


burst upon the vision from the summit of that 
stately tower ; and picture the burning sands of 
the desert far beyond the mysterious waters of 
the Dead Sea on the one hand, and the shining 
waves of the Great Sea on the other, flecked 
with the white sails of the Tyrian ships, whilst 
hoary Lebanon, crowned with its diadem of per- ' 
petual snow, glittered in the morning light like 
a dome of fire tempered with the emerald of its 
cedars — a fillet of glory around its brow. The 
beauty of that band of God's people, the charm 
of their songs, the comeliness of their maidens, 
the celestial peace of their homes, the romance 
of their national history and the sublimity of 
their faith, so entice me that I would not know 
when to cease should I once enter upon their 
story. I must leave behind, too, the blood- 
stained record of their last great siege, illus- 
trated by their splendid but unavailing courage ; 
their fatal dissensions and final destruction, with 
all its incredible horrors; of their exile and sla- 
very, of their dispersion in all lands and king- 
doms, of their persecutions, sufferings, wander- 
ings and despair, for eighteen hundred years. 
Indeed, it is a story that puts to shame not only 
our Christianity, but our common humanity. It 
staggers belief to be told not only that suqh 
things could be done at all, by blinded heathen or 


ferocious pagan, but done by Christian people 
and in the name of Him, the meek and lowly, 
who was called the Prince of Peace, and the har- 
binger of good will to men. Still it is an instruc- 
tive story; it seems to mark, in colors never to 
be forgotten, both the wickedness and the folly 
of intolerance. Truly, it serves to show that 
the wrath of a religious bigot is more fearful 
and ingenious than the crudest of tortures 
hatched in the councils of hell. It is not my pur- 
pose to comment upon the religion of the Jews, 
nor shall I undertake to say that they gave no 
cause in the earlier ages of Christianity for the 
hatred of their opponents. Undoubtedly they 
gave much cause, and exhibited themselves much 
bitterness and ferocity towards the followers of 
the Nazarene; which, however it may be an ex- 
cuse, is far from being a justification of the cen- 
turies of horror which followed. But if con- 
stancy, faithfulness and devotion to principle 
under the most trying circumstances to which 
the children of men were ever subjected be con- 
sidered virtues, then indeed are the Jews to be 
admired. They may safely defy the rest of man- 
kind to show such undying adherence to accepted 
faith, such wholesale sacrifice for conscience sake. 
For it they have in all ages given up home and 
country, wives and children, gold and goods, 


ease and shelter and life ; for it they endured all 
the evils of an infernal wrath for eighteen cen- 
turies; for it they have endured, and — say what 
you will — endured with an inexpressible man- 
hood that which no other portion of the human 
family ever have, or, in my opinion, ever would 
have endured. For sixty generations the heri- 
tage which the father left the son was misery, 
suffering, shame and despair; and that son pre- 
served and handed down to his son, that black 
heritage as a golden heirloom, for the sake of 

A few remarks upon their numbers and pres- 
ent status in the world, their peculiarities and 
probable destiny, and my task will be done. 

Originally, as we have seen, the Jews were an 
agricultural people, and their civil polity was 
framed specially for this state of things. Indeed 
the race of Shem originally seemed not to have 
been endowed with the great commercial in- 
stincts which characterize the descendants of 
Ham and Japheth. Their cities for the most 
part were built in the interior, remote from the 
channels of trade, whilst the race of Ham and 
Japheth built upon the seashore and the banks 
of great rivers. But the exile of the Jews con- 
verted them necessarily into merchants. Denied 
as a general rule citizenship in the land of their 


refuge, subject at any moment to spoliation and 
expulsion, their only sure means of living was 
in traffic, in which they soon became skilled on 
the principles of a specialty in labor. 

They naturally, therefore, followed in their 
dispersion, as they have ever since done, the 
great channels of commerce throughout the 
world, with such deflections here and there as 
persecution rendered necessary. But notwith- 
standing the many impulses to which their wan- 
derings have been subjected, they have in the 
main obeyed the general laws of migration by 
moving east and west upon nearly the same par- 
allels of latitude. Their numbers in spite of 
losses by all causes, including religious defection, 
which, everything considered, has been remarka- 
bly small, have steadily increased and are now 
variously estimated at seven to nine millions. 
They may be divided, says Dr. Pressell, into 
tKree great classes, the enumeration of which will 
show their wonderful dispersion. The first of 
these inhabit the interior of Africa, Arabia, 
India, China, Turkestan and Bokhara. Even 
the Arabs Mr. Disraeli terms Jews upon horse- 
back; they are, however, the sons of Ishmael — 
half-brothers to the Jews. These are the lowest 
of the Jewish people in wealth, intelligence and 
religion, though said to be superior to their Gen- 


tile neighbors in each. The second and most 
numerous class is found in Northern Africa, 
Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, 
Asia Minor, European Turkey, Poland, Russia 
and parts of Austria. In these are found the 
strictly orthodox, Talmudical Jews; the sect 
Chasidirrij who are the representatives of the Zeal- 
ots of Josephus, and the small but most interest- 
ing sect Karaites, who reject all Rabbinical tra- 
ditions, and are the only Jews who adhere to the 
strict letter of the Scriptures. This class is rep- 
resented as being very ignorant of all except 
Jewish learning — it being prohibited to study 
any other. Yet they alone are regarded by 'schol- 
ars as the proper expounders of ancient Talmud- 
ical Judaism. As might be inferred from the 
character of the governments under which they 
live, their political condition is most unhappy 
and insecure, and their increase in wealth and 
their social progress are slow. The third and 
last class are those of Central and Western Eu- 
rope and the United States. These are by far 
the most intelligent and civilized of their race, 
not only keeping pace with the progress of their 
Gentile neighbors, but contributing to it largely. 
Their Oriental mysticism seems to have given 
place to the stronger practical ideas of Western 
Europe, with which they have come in contact. 



and they have embraced them fully. They are 
denominated "reforming" in their tenets, at- 
tempting to eliminate the Talmudical traditions 
which cmnber and obscure their creed, and adapt 
it somewhat to the spirit of the age, though in 
tearing this away, they have also, say the theolo- 
gians, dispensed with much of the Old Testa- 
ment itself. In fact, they have become simply 
Unitarians or Deists. 

Many curious facts concerning them are wor- 
thy to be noted. In various cities of the Eastern 
World they have been for ages, and in some are 
yet, huddled into crowded and filthy streets or 
quarters, in a manner violative of all the rules of 
health, yet it is a notorious fact that they have 
ever suffered less from pestilential diseases than 
their Christian neighbors. So often have the 
black wings of epidemic plagues passed over 
them, and smitten all around them, that ignor- 
ance and malignity frequently accused them of 
poisoning the wells and fountains and of exer- 
cising sorcery. 

They have also in a very noticeable degree 
been exempt from consumption and all diseases 
of the respiratory functions, which in them are 
said by physicians to be wonderfully adapted to 
enduring the vicissitudes of all temperatures and 
climates. The average duration of Gentile life 


is computed at 26 years — it certainly does not 
reach 30; that of the Jew, according to a most 
interesting table of statistics which I have seen, 
is full 37 years. The number of infants born to 
the married couple exceeds that of the Gentile 
races, and the number dying in infancy is much 
smaller. In height they are nearly three inches 
lower than the average of other races ; the width 
of their bodies with outstretched arms is one inch 
shorter than the height, whilst in other races it is 
eight inches longer on the average. But on the 
other hand, the length of the trunk is much 
greater with the Jew in proportion to height 
than with other races. In the negro the trunk 
constitutes 32 per cent, of the height of the whole 
body, in the European 34 per cent., in the Jew 
36 per cent. What these physical peculiarities 
have had to do with their wonderful preserva- 
tion and steady increase I leave for the philoso- 
phers to explain. 

Their social life is, if possible, still more re- 
markable. There is neither prostitution nor pau- 
perism and but little abject poverty among 
them. They have some paupers, it is true, but 
they trouble neither you nor me. Crime in the 
malignant, wilful sense of that word is exceed- 
ingly rare. I have never known but one Jew 
convicted of any offence beyond the grade of 


a misdemeanor, though I am free to say I have 
known many a one who would have been im- 
proved by a little hanging. They contribute lib- 
erally to all Gentile charities in the communities 
where they live ; they ask nothing from the Gen- 
tiles for their own. If a Jew is broken down in 
business, the others set him up again or give him 
employment, and his children have bread. If 
one is in trouble the others stand by him with 
counsel and material aid, remembering the com- 
mand, "Thou shalt open thine hand wide unto 
thy brethren, and shall surely lend him sufficient 
for his need, in that which he wanteth." Their 
average education is far ahead of the races by 
whom they are surrounded. I have never seen 
an adult Jew who could not read, write and 
compute figures — especially the figures. Of the 
four great human industries which conduce to 
the public wealth, agriculture, manufacturing, 
mining and commerce, as a general rule they 
engage only in one. They are neither farmers, 
miners, smiths, carpenters, mechanics nor arti- 
sans of any kind. They are merchants only, but 
as such own few or no ships, and they are rarely 
carriers of any kind. They wander over the 
whole earth, but they are never pioneers, and 
they found no colonies, because as I suppose, 
being devoted to one business only, they lack the 


self-sustaining elements of those who build new 
States; and whilst they engage individually in 
politics where they are not disfranchised, and 
contend for offices and honors like other people, 
they yet seek nowhere political power or national 
aggregation. Dealers in every kind of merchan- 
dise, with rare exceptions they manufacture 
none. They dwell exclusively in towns, cities and 
villages, but as a general rule do not own the 
property they live upon. They marry within 
themselves entirely, and yet in defiance of well- 
known natural laws, with regard to breeding "in 
and in," their race does not degenerate. With 
them family government is perhaps more su- 
preme than with any other people. Divorce, 
domestic discord and disobedience to parents are 
almost unknown among them. 

The process by which they have become the 
leading merchants, bankers and financiers of the 
world is explained by their history. In many 
places their children were not permitted to enter 
the schools, or even to be enrolled in the guilds 
of labor. Trade was therefore the only avenue 
left open to them. In most countries they dared 
not or could not own the soil. Why a nation of 
original agriculturists ceased to cultivate the soil 
altogether is therefore only seemingly inexplic- 
able. All nations must have a certain propor- 


tion of their population engaged in tilling the 
soil; as the Jews have no common country they 
reside in all, and in all countries they have the 
shrewdness to see that whilst it is most honor- 
able to plough, yet all men live more comforta- 
bly than the ploughman. In addition to which, 
as before intimated, agriculture so fixed them to 
the soil that it would have been impossible to 
evade persecution and spoliation. They were 
constantly on the move, and their wealth must 
therefore be portable and easily secreted — ^hence 
their early celebrity as lapidaries, dealers in dia- 
monds and precious stones — and hence, too, their 
introduction of bills of exchange. The utility of 
these great aids to commerce had long been 
known to the world — perhaps by both Greek 
and Roman — ^but could never be made available 
by them, because confidence in the integrity of 
each other did not exist between the drawer and 
the drawee. But this integrity, which the lordly 
merchants of the Christian and Pagan world 
could not inspire, was found to exist in the per- 
secuted and despised Jew, So much for the 
lessons of adversity. These arts diligently ap- 
plied, at first from necessity, afterwards from 
choice, in the course of centuries made the Jews 
skilful above all men in the ways of merchandise 
and money changing, and finally developed in 




them those peculiar faculties and aptitudes for a 
calling which are brought out as well in man by 
the special education of successive generations 
as in the lower animals. The Jew merchant had 
an advantage, too, over his Gentile competitor 
who belonged to a consolidated nation, confined 
to certain geographical limits, speaking a cer- 
tain tongue. The aid, sympathy and influence 
which he derived from social and political ties 
were also confined to the limits of his nation. 
But the Jew merchant belonged to a scattered 
nattoUj spread out over the whole earth, speaking 
many tongues, and welded together, not by social 
ties alone, but by the fierce fires of suffering and 
persecution; and the aid, sympathy, influence 
and information which he derived therefrom 
came out of the utmost parts of the earth. 

When after many centuries the flames of per- 
secution had abated so that the Jews were per- 
mitted more than bare life, their industry, ener- 
gy and talent soon placed them among the 
important motive powers of the world. They 
entered the field of commerce in its grandest and 
most colossal operations. They became the 
friends and counselors of kings, the prime min- 
isters of empires, the treasurers of republics, the 
movers of armies, the arbiters of public credit, 
the patrons of art, and the critics of literature. 


We do not forget the time in the near past when 
the peace of Europe — of three worlds — hung up- 
on the Jewish Prime Minister of England. No 
people are so ready to accommodate themselves 
to circumstances. It was but recently that we 
heard of an English Jew taking absolute lease of 
the ancient Persian Empire. The single family 
of Rothschild, the progeny of a poor German 
Jew, who three generations ago sold curious old 
coins under the sign of a red shield^ are now the 
possessors of greater wealth and power than was 
Solomon, when he could send 1,300,000 fighting 
men into the field! 

Twenty years ago, when this family was in 
the height of its power, perhaps no sovereign in 
Europe could have waged a successful war 
against its united will. Two centuries since the 
ancestors of these Jewish money kings were 
skulking in the caverns of the earth or hiding in 
squalid outskirts of persecuting cities. Nor let 
it be supposed that it is in this field alone we 
see the great effects of Jewish intellect and en- 
ergy. The genius which showed itself capable 
of controlling the financial affairs of the world 
necessarily carried with it other great powers and 
capabilities. The Jews, in fact, under most ad- 
verse circumstances, made their mark — a high 
and noble mark — in every other department of 



human affairs. Christian clergymen have sat at 
the feet of their Rabbis to be taught the mystic 
learning of the East; Senates have been en- 
wrapped by the eloquence of Jewish orators; 
courts have been convinced by the acumen and 
learning of Jewish lawyers ; vast throngs excited 
to the wildest enthusiasm by Jewish histrionic 
and aesthetic art; Jewish science has helped to 
number the stars in their courses, to "loose the 
bands of Orion" and to "guide Arcturus with 
his sons/* 

Jewish literature has delighted and instructed 
all classes of mankind, and the world has listened 
with rapture and with tears to Jewish melody 
and song. For never since its spirit was evoked 
under the shadow of the vines on the hills of 
Palestine to soothe the melancholy of her King, 
has Judah's harp, whether in freedom or captiv- 
ity, in sorrow or joy, ceased to wake the witch- 
ery of its tuneful strings. 

Time forbids that I should even name the 
greatest of those who have distinguished them- 
selves and made good their claim to rank with 
the foremost of earth. No section of the human 
family can boast a greater list of men and wo- 
men entitled to be placed among the true chil- 
dren of genius — agoing to make up the primacy 
of our race in every branch of human affairs, 


in every phase of human civilization. Dr. Dra- 
per says that for four hundred years of the mid- 
dle ages — ages more dark and terrible to them 
than to any others — they took the most philo- 
sophical and comprehensive view of things of all 
European people. 

On the whole, and after due deliberation, I 
think it may be truthfully said that there is more 
of average wealth, intelligence, and morality 
among the Jewish people than there is among 
any other nation of equal numbers in the world 1 
If this be true — if it be half true — ^when we con- 
sider the circumstances under which it has all 
been brought about, it constitutes in the eyes of 
thinking men the most remarkable moral phe- 
nomenon ever exhibited by any portion of the 
human family. For not only has the world given 
the Jew no help, but all that he is, he has made 
himself in spite of the world — in spite of its bit- 
ter cruelty, its scorn and unspeakable tyranny. 
The most he has ever asked, certainly the most 
he has ever received, and that but rarely, was to 
be left alone. To escape the sword, the rack, the 
fire, and utter spoiling of his goods, has indeed, 
for centuries, been to him a blessed heritage, as 
the shadow of a great rock in a weary land. 

The physical persecution of the Jews has 
measurably ceased among all nations of the high- 


est civilization. There is no longer any proscrip- 
tion left upon their political rights in any land 
where the English tongue is spoken. I am proud 
of the fact. But there remains among us an 
unreasonable prejudice of which I am heartily 
ashamed. Our toleration will not be complete 
until we put it away also, as well as the old im- 
plements of physical torture. 

This age, and these United States in particu- 
lar, so boastful of toleration, presents some cur- 
ious evidences of the fact that the old spirit is 
not dead; evidences tending much to show that 
the prejudices of two thousand years ago are 
still with us. In Germany, a land more than 
all others indebted to the genius and loyal energy 
of the Jews, a vast uprising against them was 
lately excited, for the sole reason, so far as one 
can judge, that they occupy too many places of 
learning and honor, and are becoming too rich I 

In this, our own free and tolerant land, where 
wars have been waged and constitutions violated 
for the benefit of the African negro, the de- 
scendants of barbarian tribes who for four thou- 
sand years have contributed nothing to, though 
in close contact with, the civilization of mankind, 
save as the Helots contributed an example to the 
Spartan youth, and where laws and partisan 
courts alike have been used to force him into an 


equality with those whom he could not equal, we 
have seen Jews, educated and respectable men, 
descendants of those from whom we derive our 
civilization, kinsmen, after the flesh, of Him 
whom we esteem as the Son of God and Saviour 
of men, ignominiously ejected from hotels and 
watering places as unworthy the association of 
men who had grown rich by the sale of a new 
brand of soap or an improved patent rat trap! 
I have never heard of one of these indecent 


thrusts at the Jews without thinking of the dying 
words of Sargeant Bothwell when he saw his 
life's ciu'rent dripping from the sword of Bur- 
ley: "Base peasant churl, thou hast spilt the 
blood of a line of Kings.'' 

Let us learn to judge the Jew as we judge 
other men — hy his merits. And above all, let us 
cease the abominable injustice of holding the 
class responsible for the sins of the individual. 
We apply this test to no other people. 

Our principal excuse for disliking him now is 
that we have injured him. The true gentleman, 
Jew or Gentile, will always recognize the true 
gentleman, Jew or Gentile, and will refuse to 
consort with an ill-bred impostor. 

The impudence of the low-bred Jew is not 
one whit more detestable than the impudence of 
the low-bred Gentile, children of shoddy, who by 


countless thousands swarm into doors opened 
for them by our democracy. Let us cry quits on 
that score. Let us judge each other by our best, 
not by our worst samples, and when we find gold 
let us recognize it. Let us prove all things and 
hold fast that which is good. 

Whilst it is a matter of just pride to us that 
there is neither physical persecution nor legal 
proscription left upon the civil rights of the 
Jews in any land where the English tongue is 
spoken or the English law obtains, yet I con- 
sider it a grave reproach not only to us but to 
all Christendom that such injustice is permitted 
anywhere. The recent barbarities inflicted upon 
them in Russia revive the recollection of the 
darkest cruelties of the middle ages. That is 
one crying outrage, one damned spot that black- 
ens the fair light of the nineteenth century, with- 
out the semblance of excuse or the shadow of 
justification. That glare of burning homes, 
those shrieks of outraged women, those wailings 
of orphaned children go up to God, not only as 
witnesses against the wretched savages who per- 
petrate them, but as accusations also of those 
who permit them. How sad it is again to hear 
that old cry of Jewish sorrow, which we had 
hoped to hear no more forever! How shameful 
it is to know that within the shadow of so-c^lkd 


Christian Churdies there are yet dark places 
filled with the habitations of cruelty. No con- 
siderations of diplomacy or international cour- 
tesy should for one moment stand in the way of 
their stern and instant suppression. 

The Jews are our spiritual fathers, the au- 
thors of our morals, the founders of our civiliza- 
tion, with all the power and dominion arising 
therefrom, and the great peoples professing 
Christianity and imbued with any of its noble 
spirit should see to it that justice and protection 
are afforded them. By simply speaking with 
one voice it could be done, for no power on earth 
could resist that voice. Every consideration of 
humanity and international policy demands it. 
Their unspeakable misfortunes, their inherited 
woes, their very helplessness appeal to our Chris- 
tian, chivalry, trumpet-tongued in behalf of those 
wretched victims of a prejudice for which toler- 
ant Christianity is not altogether irresponsible. 

There are objections to the Jew as a citizen; 
many objections; some true and some false, some 
serious and some trivial. It is said that, indus- 
trially, he produces nothing, invents nothing, 
adds nothing to the public wealth; that he will 
not own real estate, nor take upon himself those 
permanent ties which beget patriotism and be- 
come hostages of good citizenship ; that he mere- 


ly sojourns in the land and does not dwell in it, 
but is ever in light marching order and is ready 
to flit when the word comes to go. These are 
true objections in the main, and serious ones, but 
I submit the fault is not his, even here. 

"Quoth old Mazeppa, ill be-tide 
The school wherein I learned to ride." 

These habits he learned by persecution. He 
dwelt everywhere in fear and trembling, and 
had no assurance of his life. He was ever ready 
to leave because at any moment he might be com- 
pelled to choose between leaving and death. He 
built no house, because at any moment he and his 
little ones might be thrust out of it to perish. 
He cherished no love for the land because it 
cherished none for him, but was cruel and hard 
and bitter to him. And yet history shows that 
in every land where he has been protected he has 
been a faithful and zealous patriot. Also since 
his rights have been secured he has begun to 
show the same permanent attachments to the 
soil as other people, and is rapidly building 
houses and in some places cultivating farms. 
These objections he is rapidly removing since 
we have removed their cause. 

So, too, the impression is sought to be made 
that he is dishonest in his dealings with the Gen- 
tiles, insincere in his professions, servile to his 


superiors and tyrannical to his inferiors, Orien- 
tal in his habit and manner. That the Jew — 
meaning the class — ^is dishonest, I believe to be 
an atrocious calumny; and, considering that we 
derive all our notions of rectitude from the Jew, 
who first taught the world that command, "Thou 
shalt not steal," and "Thou shalt not bear false 
witness," we pay ourselves a shabby compliment 
in thus befouling our teachers. Undoubtedly 
there are Jewish scoundrels in great abundance; 
undoubtedly also there are Gentile scoundrelisl 
in greater abundance. Southern reconstruction 
put that fact beyond a peradventure. But our 
own scoundrels are orthodooo, Jewish scoundrels 
are unbelievers — that is the difference. If a man 
robs me I should thank him that he denies my 
creed too; he compliments both me and it by the 

The popular habit is to regard an injury done 
to one by a man of different creed as a double 
wrong; to me it seems that the wrong is the 
greater coming from my own. To hold also, 
as some do, that the sins of all people are due to 
their creeds, would leave the sins of the sinners 
of my creed quite imaccounted for. With some 
faith of a scoundrel is all important ; it is not so 

with me. 

All manner of crimes, including perjury, 


cheating and overreaching in trade, are unhesi- 
tatingly attributed to the Jews, generally by 
their rivals in trade. Yet somehow they are 
rarely proven to the satisfaction of even Gentile 
judges and juries. The gallows clutches but 
few, nor are they found in jails and penitentiar- 
ies — a species of real estate which I honor them 
for not investing in. I admit that there was 
and is perhaps now a remnant of the feeling that 
it was legal to spoil the Egyptians. Their con- 
stant life of persecution would naturally inspire 
this feeling; their present life of toleration and 
their business estimate of the value of character 
will as naturally remove it. Again and again, 
day by day, we evince our Gentile superiority in 
tricks of trade and sharp practise. It is asserted 
by our proverbial exclamation in regard to a 
particular piece of villainy, "That beats the 
Jews I" And I call your attention to the further 
fact that, sharp as they undoubtedly are, they 
have found it impossible to make a living in New 
England. Outside of Boston, not fifty perhaps 
can be found in all that land of unsuspecting in- 
tegrity and modest righteousness. They have 
managed to endure with long-suifering patience 
the knout of the Czar and the bow-string of the 
Turk, but they have fled for life from the pres- 
ence of the wooden nutmegs and the left-handed 


gimlets of Jonathan. Is there any man who 
hears me to-night who, if a Yankee and a Jew 
were to "lock horns" in a regular encounter of 
conmiercial wits, would not give large odds on 
the Yankee? My own opinion is that the gen- 
uine "guessing" Yankee, with a jack-knife and 
a pine shingle, could in two hours' time whittle 
the smartest Jew in New York out of his home- 
stead in the Abrahamic covenant.* 

I agree with Lord Macaulay that the Jew is 
what we have made him. If he is a bad job, in 
all honesty we should contemplate him as the 
handiwork of our own civilization. If there be 
indeed guile upon his lips or servility in his man- 
ner, we should remember that such are the legiti- 
mate fruits of oppression and wrong, and that 
they have been, since the pride of Judah was 
broken and his strength scattered, his only means 
of turning aside the uplifted sword and the 
poised javelin of him who sought to plunder and 
slay. Indeed, so long has he schemed and shifted 
to avoid injustice and cruelty, that we can per- 
ceive in him all the restless watchfulness which 
characterizes the hunted animal. 

To this day the cast of the Jew's features in 

*This was the effusive humor of a young man. The words 
of the author applied to the passage from Macaulay criticised 
by him are suitable here: "I submit it is not history." — Ed. 


repose is habitually grave and sad as though the 
very ploughshare of sorrow had marked its fur- 
rows across their faces forever. 

"And where shall Israel lave her bleeding feet? 

And when shall Zion's songs again seem sweet. 

And Judah's melody once more rejoice 

The hearts that leaped before its heavenly voice ? 

Tribes of the wandering foot and weary heart, 

How shall ye flee away and be at rest? 

The wild dove hath her nest — ^the fox his cave — 

Mankind their country — Israel but the grave." 

The hardness of Christian prejudice having 
dissolved, so will that of the Jew. The hammer 
of persecution having ceased to beat upon the 
iron mass of their stubbornness, it will cease to 
consolidate and harden, and the main strength of 
their exclusion and preservation will have been 
lost. They will perhaps learn that one sentence 
of our Lord's prayer which is said not to be found 
in the Talmud and is the key-note of the differ- 
ence between Jew and Gentile, "Forgive us 
our trespasses ds we forgive them who trespass 
against us." 

If so, they will become as other men, and tak- 
ing their harps down from the willows, no longer 
refuse to sing the songs of Zion because they are 
captives in a strange land. 

I believe that there is a morning to open yet 
for the Jews in Heaven's good time, and, if that 


opening shall be in any way commensurate with 
the darkness of the night through which they 
have passed, it will be the brightest that ever 
dawned upon a faithful people. 

I have stood on the summit of the very mon- 
arch of our great Southern Alleghanies and have 
seen the night flee away before the chariot wheels 
of the god of day. The stars receded before the 
pillars of lambent fire that pierced the zenith, a 
thousand ragged mountain peaks began to peer 
up from the abysmal darkness, each looking 
through the vapory seas that filled the gorges 
like an island whose "jutting and confounded 
base was swilled by the wild and wasteful ocean." 
As the curtain was lifted more and more and the 
eastern brightness grew in radiance and in glory , 
animate nature prepared to receive her lord ; the 
tiny snow-bird from its nest in the turf began 
chirping to its young; the silver pheasant 
sounded its morning drum-beat for its mate in 
the boughs of the fragrant fir ; the dun deer, ris- 
ing slowly from his mossy couch and stretching 
himself in graceful curves, began to crop the 
tender herbage; while the lordly eagle rising 
straight upward from his home on the crag, with 
pinions wide spread, bared his golden breast to 
the yellow beams and screamed his welcome to 
the sun in his coming! Soon the vapors of the 


night were lifted up on shafts of fire, rolling and 
seething in billows of refulgent flame, until far 
overhead, they were caught upon the wings of 
the morning breeze and swept away ; perfect day 
was established and there was peace. So may it 
be with this long-suffering and immortal people. 
So may the real spirit of Christ yet be so tri- 
umphantly infused among those who profess to 
obey His teachings that with one voice and one 
hand they will stay the persecutions and hush 
the sorrows of these their wondrous kinsmen, 
put them forward into the places of honor and 
the homes of love where all the lands in which 
they dwell shall be to them as was Jerusalem to 
their fathers. So may the morning come, not 
to them alone, but to all the children of men who, 
through much tribulation and with heroic man- 
hood, have waited for its dawning, with a faith 
whose constant cry through all the dreary 
watches of the night has been, "Though He slay 
me, yet will I trust Him 1" 

"Roll, golden sun, roll swiftly toward the west, 
Dawn happy day when many woes shall cease ; 

Come quickly, Lord, Thy people wait the rest 
Of thine abiding peace ! 

No more, no more to hunger here for love ; 

No more to thirst for blessings long denied. 
Judah ! Thy face is foul with weeping, but above 

Thou Shalt be satisfied!" 




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